VoteWell.net

Election System Costs

Contents:

Ballot Image Audits

Risk-limiting Audits

Hand Counts

 

Report on costs for all makers of election equipment in the US: Price of Voting, 2021

Report on structure of the election equipment industry in the US: Business of Voting, 2017

Large collection of contracts from 40 states 1992-2008 for election equipment & support collected by Dr. Joseph Lorenzo Hall with Table of Contents by county, date & vendor, and Readme

 

 

Costs to reanalyze BALLOT IMAGES

 

Independent software to tally ballot images is available from:

        Trachtenberg, Mitch (2013) Democracy Counts now used at https://electionstransparencyproject.com/news/ Free under open source license. It reads HART Intercivic ballot formats in Humboldt County, CA, and would need a skilled programmer to generalize it.

updated 12/7/2022

Contract Cost per Election (excludes government staff cost)

Number of ballot sheets in elections shown

Cost per ballot sheet

Sources. The numbers are also in a spreadsheet.

 

AuditEngine

Oregon, Clackamas County 2022 Primary

 

Analyze ballot images

$ 20,000

117,000

$0.17

Proposal https://copswiki.org/Common/M1985I included investigation into reasons for failures in reading the style barcodes

Re-scan & analyze

$ 30,000

117,000

$0.26

 

Clear Ballot, sole source contracts to analyze existing ballot images on contractor's equipment; no fresh scan

Maryland

Maryland 2019-2022 Scope of Work, "cost of the audit does not increase based on the number of ballots"

Costs: pp.158-59 of bpw.maryland.gov/MeetingDocs/2020-Dec-02-Agenda.pdf

Sole source justification and price analysis required by BPW

Number of ballots: elections.maryland.gov/elections/2020/index.html

2022 ballots based on 2018, since only 2% total population growth in 4 years https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/MDPOP

Reports: https://maryland.clearballot.com/

As is, no warranty of accurate results; Clear Ballot shows discrepancies on individual ballots; provides portal for county to adjudicate ballot interpretations. State or counties provide pdf of each ballot style & full results, images & CVRs.

2020 special primary

$ 45,063

84,298

$0.53

2020 special general

$ 45,063

151,718

$0.30

2022 primary

$ 435,050

872,305

$0.50

2020 primary

$ 395,500

1,763,281

$0.22

2022 general

$ 435,050

2,335,248

$0.19

2020 general

$ 395,500

3,037,030

$0.13

2020-2022 totals

$1,751,226

8,243,880

$0.21

Maryland 2016 estimate

 

 

$0.09

Source: https://www.elections.maryland.gov/press_room/documents/Post%20Election%20Tabulation%20Audit%20Pilot%20Program%20Report.pdf

Colorado, Montrose County 2020 general

 

Base Fee (in addition to per-ballot fee)

$ 12,200

25,160

$0.48

Source: 9/27/21 Order As is, no warranty of accurate results; Clear Ballot shows discrepancies on individual ballots; provides portal for county to adjudicate ballot interpretations; helpdesk during elections 7-11, unlimited support; always phone & email response within 24h; no "worker without authorization"; Colorado can inspect onsite. County provides pdf of each ballot style & full results, images & CVRs.

Fee based on number of ballots

$ 6,290

25,160

$0.25

Total

$ 18,490

25,160

$0.73

 

Clear Ballot, sole source contracts to buy equipment to re-scan & analyze

New York, pricing for 100,000 registered voters

 

1st year: Buy 2 small scanner packages & server & 2 days training, assume 12 year life, 24 elections (3 Presidential elections)

$ 56,900

1,200,000 total 12 years, 24 elections, 50% avg turnout

$0.09

2021-2026 online.ogs.ny.gov/purchase/spg/pdfdocs/2230023198PL_ClearBallot.xlsx

and online.ogs.ny.gov/purchase/spg/pdfdocs/2230023198Contractorinfo.pdf and online.ogs.ny.gov/purchase/spg/awards/2230023198CAN.HTM

Note: Costs per ballot drop with more ballots.

 

Details are in the spreadsheet.

 

Terms:p.31: Five sets of manuals, not confidential; 5-year guarantee. P.35 NY gets access to security logs upon request. Pp.28-29 require onsite support within 24 hours of call & equipment replacement if needed in 48 hours, from 30 days before to 15 days after election day. P33. Notify security incidents within 48h, data breaches ASAP within 24h.

Later year: support, license, warranty & 2 days training

$ 67,260

Total 12 years

$ 796,760

1,200,000

$0.33

12 yrs non-variable costs (mostly license)

$ 215,960

 

 

Varying cost per ballot

$ 0.24

 

 

Florida, Miami-Dade

 

Buy 1 server, 16 scanners & 10 days training, assume 12 year life (3 Presidential elections)

$879,387

8,790,828 total 12 years

$0.10

Costs: http://votewell.net/miami2022cost.pdf

Contract: http://votewell.net/miami2022terms.pdf As is, no warranty of accurate results; Clear Ballot can audit Miami's facilities with "reasonable advance notice"

 

Details are in the spreadsheet.

Annual maintenance/year (free 1st yr)

$163,536

Total 12 years

$2,678,283

8,790,828

$0.30

 

RISK-LIMITING AUDITS

Arlo software is freely available, open source, to run on customer computers without support. Following contracts are for support and running on VotingWorks computers, online.

https://docs.voting.works/arlo

 

Arlo for California: contract to support to counties for 11 months, for as many contests & ballots as the counties wish. Counties do their own data entry:

Implementation of Arlo online

$22,894

http://votewell.net/arloca.pdf 58 counties, 21,885,545 registered voters 9/9/22, so $0.0010/registered voter

Contract requires monthly vulnerability assessments (though only 2 audits/year), remediate in 5 days, inspect with "advance written request", encryption, CA & "industry standards and guidelines", "allow the State reasonable access to security logs, latency statistics, and other related security data", user acceptance testing.

Custom Development for CA

$1,221

 

Training

$91,572

 

Total

$115,687

 

 

Arlo for Georgia: contract to support to state & counties for 12 months. Counties do their own data entry.

Software hosting & support

$54,258 ($0.0075/registered voter)

http://votewell.net/arloga.pdf 159 counties, 7,234,431 registered voters

Contract shows price breakdown: $500 per training webinar, $1,500 per staff day of phone & email support, $2,500 per staff day onsite support

 

https://coaltionforgoodgovernance.sharefile.com/d-s5ef43560ff7c4ac9911004ba8765501c Has audit instructions on pp.18-27 & 74; training slides on pp.29-72; critiques on pp.3-13, 79-81, 83-85.

Custom Development for GA

$15,000

Training

$4,000

Support: phone, email & onsite

$94,500

Total

$167,758

 

Arlo for Pennsylvania: contract to support to state & counties for 12 months. Counties do their own data entry.

Software hosting

$70,390

http://votewell.net/arlopa.pdf 67 counties, 8,872,968 registered voters, so $0.0079/registered voter

Contract requires annual 3rd party vulnerability assessment, SOC reports & corrective action plan 1 months after findings (timing relative to audits not set), allows state inspections "within at least three (3) business days' notice" (PA precedent may clarify whether this means more or less than 3 days notice), encryption, "industry standards", "best practices", background checks; also addresses liability. Chain of custody assessed in Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Lancaster, Montgomery, Philadelphia. Contract provides sample selection & expansion, though policy is to use existing sample & no expansion

Training & support

$26,500

Assess chain of custody & VBM

$45,000

Total

$141,890

 

Arlo for Virginia: contract to support to state & counties for 12 months. Counties do their own data entry.

Software hosting & support

$45,387 ($0.0075/registered voter)

http://votewell.net/arlova.pdf 133 counties & independent cities, 6,051,629 registered voters

Documents received do not describe the security requirements.

Added security requirements

$15,000

3-month extension

$11,347

Total per year

$60,387

 

HAND COUNTS

Staff Minutes per Contest

Number of Ballots, 10 Contests per Ballot

Number of Staff Assigned

Elapsed Hours

Sources at

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Time_for_hand_counts.png

 

Tally sheet designs are at http://www.votewell.net/tally.htm

0.10

100,000

60

28

0.33

100,000

180

31

1.00

100,000

300

56